Gaelic Football ist eine Mischung aus Fußball und Rugby. und wird fast nur in Irland gespielt. Der Ball wird mit Händen und Füßen gespielt. Gaelic Football (irisch: peil Ghaelach, kurz peil oder caid) ist eine Sportart, die Elemente des Fußball und Rugby aufweist und hauptsächlich in Irland ausgeübt . Die typisch irischen Sportarten Hurling und Gaelic Football werden in Irland seit vielen Jahrhunderten gespielt und sind tief in der Identität der Iren verwurzelt. The first Rugby international took place in For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division footballa variant of the association superbike motogp codes, as early as the s. For specific versions of the game and other uses of the term, see Football disambiguation. The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part Machine à sous Drone Wars gratuit dans Microgaming casino association football, but which are still recognisable in other games such as Australian football and rugby football: A hybrid of the two, known as the " Boston game ", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club. After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published. The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members. Rugby union with minor modifications. This reinforces the idea that the games played europa league sieger the time did not necessarily involve a ball being kicked. In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or mauland the lifting of players in Beste Spielothek in Loxstedt finden was legalised. These games and others may well go far back into antiquity. The committee debated rules used in English public school kevin großkreutz vfb Wills pushed for various rugby football rules he Beste Spielothek in Sprockhof finden during his schooling.
Garlic football -Die Hauptaufgabe der Linienrichter ist es, per Flagge anzuzeigen, wenn und an welcher Stelle der Ball das Spielfeld verlassen hat und welche Mannschaft den Ball wieder ins Spiel bringen darf. Dafür ging es gut: Die Spielzeit beträgt zweimal 35 Minuten. Da mussten sich die irischen Fans hüten vor den britischen Beamten. Man weiss es nicht — angeblich sollen die Statuten von Galway schon Fussball erwähnt haben, als vom Hurlingverbot ausgenommen. Dabei darf nur der Torhüter der anderen Mannschaft auf der Torlinie stehen. Wenn ein Handspiel im Fussball kein Handspiel ist!
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These games and others may well go far back into antiquity. However, the main sources of modern football codes appear to lie in western Europe, especially England.
Ancient Greek athlete balancing a ball on his thigh. A Song dynasty painting by Su Hanchen c. Paint of a Mesoamerican ballgame player of the Tepantitla murals in Teotihuacan.
A revived version of kemari being played at the Tanzan Shrine , Japan. An illustration from the s of Australian Aboriginal hunter gatherers.
Children in the background are playing a game, possibly Woggabaliri. A group of aborigines playing a ball game in Guiana. The Middle Ages saw a huge rise in popularity of annual Shrovetide football matches throughout Europe, particularly in England.
An early reference to a ball game played in Britain comes from the 9th century Historia Brittonum , which describes "a party of boys The early forms of football played in England, sometimes referred to as " mob football ", would be played between neighbouring towns and villages, involving an unlimited number of players on opposing teams who would clash en masse ,  struggling to move an item, such as inflated animal's bladder  to particular geographical points, such as their opponents' church, with play taking place in the open space between neighbouring parishes.
The first detailed description of what was almost certainly football in England was given by William FitzStephen in about — He described the activities of London youths during the annual festival of Shrove Tuesday:.
After lunch all the youth of the city go out into the fields to take part in a ball game. The students of each school have their own ball; the workers from each city craft are also carrying their balls.
Older citizens, fathers, and wealthy citizens come on horseback to watch their juniors competing, and to relive their own youth vicariously: Most of the very early references to the game speak simply of "ball play" or "playing at ball".
This reinforces the idea that the games played at the time did not necessarily involve a ball being kicked. An early reference to a ball game that was probably football comes from at Ulgham , Northumberland, England: In , Nicholas de Farndone , Lord Mayor of the City of London issued a decree banning football in the French used by the English upper classes at the time.
A game known as "football" was played in Scotland as early as the 15th century: There is evidence for schoolboys playing a "football" ball game in Aberdeen in some references cite which is notable as an early allusion to what some have considered to be passing the ball.
The word "pass" in the most recent translation is derived from "huc percute" strike it here and later "repercute pilam" strike the ball again in the original Latin.
It is not certain that the ball was being struck between members of the same team. The original word translated as "goal" is "metum", literally meaning the "pillar at each end of the circus course" in a Roman chariot race.
There is a reference to "get hold of the ball before [another player] does" Praeripe illi pilam si possis agere suggesting that handling of the ball was allowed.
One sentence states in the original translation "Throw yourself against him" Age, objice te illi. King Henry IV of England also presented one of the earliest documented uses of the English word "football", in , when he issued a proclamation forbidding the levying of money for "foteball".
There is also an account in Latin from the end of the 15th century of football being played at Cawston, Nottinghamshire. This is the first description of a "kicking game" and the first description of dribbling: It is one in which young men, in country sport, propel a huge ball not by throwing it into the air but by striking it and rolling it along the ground, and that not with their hands but with their feet In the 16th century, the city of Florence celebrated the period between Epiphany and Lent by playing a game which today is known as " calcio storico " "historic kickball" in the Piazza Santa Croce.
The young aristocrats of the city would dress up in fine silk costumes and embroil themselves in a violent form of football. For example, calcio players could punch, shoulder charge, and kick opponents.
Blows below the belt were allowed. The game is said to have originated as a military training exercise.
This is sometimes said to be the earliest code of rules for any football game. The game was not played after January until it was revived in May There have been many attempts to ban football, from the middle ages through to the modern day.
The first such law was passed in England in ; it was followed by more than 30 in England alone between and Women were banned from playing at English and Scottish Football League grounds in , a ban that was only lifted in the s.
Female footballers still face similar problems in some parts of the world. While football continued to be played in various forms throughout Britain, its public schools equivalent to private schools in other countries are widely credited with four key achievements in the creation of modern football codes.
First of all, the evidence suggests that they were important in taking football away from its "mob" form and turning it into an organised team sport.
Second, many early descriptions of football and references to it were recorded by people who had studied at these schools.
Third, it was teachers, students and former students from these schools who first codified football games, to enable matches to be played between schools.
Finally, it was at English public schools that the division between "kicking" and "running" or "carrying" games first became clear.
The earliest evidence that games resembling football were being played at English public schools — mainly attended by boys from the upper, upper-middle and professional classes — comes from the Vulgaria by William Herman in Herman had been headmaster at Eton and Winchester colleges and his Latin textbook includes a translation exercise with the phrase "We wyll playe with a ball full of wynde".
Richard Mulcaster , a student at Eton College in the early 16th century and later headmaster at other English schools, has been described as "the greatest sixteenth Century advocate of football".
Mulcaster's writings refer to teams "sides" and "parties" , positions "standings" , a referee "judge over the parties" and a coach " trayning maister ".
Mulcaster's "footeball" had evolved from the disordered and violent forms of traditional football:. In , David Wedderburn , a teacher from Aberdeen , mentioned elements of modern football games in a short Latin textbook called Vocabula.
Wedderburn refers to what has been translated into modern English as "keeping goal" and makes an allusion to passing the ball "strike it here".
There is a reference to "get hold of the ball", suggesting that some handling was allowed. It is clear that the tackles allowed included the charging and holding of opposing players "drive that man back".
A more detailed description of football is given in Francis Willughby 's Book of Games , written in about The gates are called Goals.
He also mentions tactics "leaving some of their best players to guard the goal" ; scoring "they that can strike the ball through their opponents' goal first win" and the way teams were selected "the players being equally divided according to their strength and nimbleness".
He is the first to describe a "law" of football: English public schools were the first to codify football games. In particular, they devised the first offside rules, during the late 18th century.
Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward, either by foot or by hand. They could only dribble with their feet, or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation.
However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, Rugby , Harrow and Cheltenham , during between and During the early 19th century, most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day.
They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force.
Feast day football played on the streets was in decline. Public school boys, who enjoyed some freedom from work, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules.
Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit.
Each school drafted its own rules, which varied widely between different schools and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils.
Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Some schools favoured a game in which the ball could be carried as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenham , while others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse.
The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played. For example, Charterhouse and Westminster at the time had restricted playing areas; the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloisters , making it difficult for them to adopt rough and tumble running games.
William Webb Ellis , a pupil at Rugby School, is said to have "with a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time [emphasis added], first took the ball in his arms and ran with it, thus creating the distinctive feature of the rugby game.
This act is usually said to be the beginning of Rugby football, but there is little evidence that it occurred, and most sports historians believe the story to be apocryphal.
The act of 'taking the ball in his arms' is often misinterpreted as 'picking the ball up' as it is widely believed that Webb Ellis' 'crime' was handling the ball, as in modern soccer, however handling the ball at the time was often permitted and in some cases compulsory,  the rule for which Webb Ellis showed disregard was running forward with it as the rules of his time only allowed a player to retreat backwards or kick forwards.
The boom in rail transport in Britain during the s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before.
Inter-school sporting competitions became possible. However, it was difficult for schools to play each other at football, as each school played by its own rules.
The solution to this problem was usually that the match be divided into two halves, one half played by the rules of the host "home" school, and the other half by the visiting "away" school.
The modern rules of many football codes were formulated during the mid- or late- 19th century. This also applies to other sports such as lawn bowls, lawn tennis, etc.
The major impetus for this was the patenting of the world's first lawnmower in This allowed for the preparation of modern ovals, playing fields, pitches, grass courts, etc.
Apart from Rugby football, the public school codes have barely been played beyond the confines of each school's playing fields. However, many of them are still played at the schools which created them see Surviving UK school games below.
Public schools' dominance of sports in the UK began to wane after the Factory Act of , which significantly increased the recreation time available to working class children.
Before , many British children had to work six days a week, for more than twelve hours a day. These changes mean that working class children had more time for games, including various forms of football.
Sports clubs dedicated to playing football began in the 18th century, for example London's Gymnastic Society which was founded in the midth century and ceased playing matches in The first documented club to bear in the title a reference to being a 'football club' were called "The Foot-Ball Club" who were located in Edinburgh , Scotland, during the period — In , three boys at Rugby school were tasked with codifying the rules then being used at the school.
These were the first set of written rules or code for any form of football. One of the longest running football fixture is the Cordner-Eggleston Cup , contested between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College, Melbourne every year since It is believed by many to also be the first match of Australian rules football , although it was played under experimental rules in its first year.
The South Australian Football Association 30 April is the oldest surviving Australian rules football competition. The oldest surviving soccer trophy is the Youdan Cup and the oldest national football competition is the English FA Cup The Football League is recognised as the longest running Association Football league.
The first ever international football match took place between sides representing England and Scotland on March 5, at the Oval under the authority of the FA.
The first Rugby international took place in In Europe, early footballs were made out of animal bladders , more specifically pig's bladders , which were inflated.
Later leather coverings were introduced to allow the balls to keep their shape. Richard Lindon's wife is said to have died of lung disease caused by blowing up pig's bladders.
In , the U. The ball was to prove popular in early forms of football in the U. The iconic ball with a regular pattern of hexagons and pentagons see truncated icosahedron did not become popular until the s, and was first used in the World Cup in The earliest reference to a game of football involving players passing the ball and attempting to score past a goalkeeper was written in by David Wedderburn, a poet and teacher in Aberdeen , Scotland.
Creswell, who having brought the ball up the side then kicked it into the middle to another of his side, who kicked it through the posts the minute before time was called"  Passing was a regular feature of their style  By early the Engineers were the first football team renowned for "play[ing] beautifully together"  A double pass is first reported from Derby school against Nottingham Forest in March , the first of which is irrefutably a short pass: In , at Cambridge University , Mr.
Thring , who were both formerly at Shrewsbury School , called a meeting at Trinity College, Cambridge , with 12 other representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury.
An eight-hour meeting produced what amounted to the first set of modern rules, known as the Cambridge rules.
No copy of these rules now exists, but a revised version from circa is held in the library of Shrewsbury School. Handling was only allowed when a player catches the ball directly from the foot entitling them to a free kick and there was a primitive offside rule, disallowing players from "loitering" around the opponents' goal.
The Cambridge rules were not widely adopted outside English public schools and universities but it was arguably the most significant influence on the Football Association committee members responsible for formulating the rules of Association football.
By the late s, many football clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football. Sheffield Football Club , founded in in the English city of Sheffield by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, was later recognised as the world's oldest club playing association football.
The code was largely independent of the public school rules, the most significant difference being the lack of an offside rule.
The code was responsible for many innovations that later spread to association football. These included free kicks , corner kicks , handball, throw-ins and the crossbar.
At this time a series of rule changes by both the London and Sheffield FAs gradually eroded the differences between the two games until the adoption of a common code in There is archival evidence of "foot-ball" games being played in various parts of Australia throughout the first half of the 19th century.
The origins of an organised game of football known today as Australian rules football can be traced back to in Melbourne , the capital city of Victoria.
Through publicity and personal contacts Wills was able to co-ordinate football matches in Melbourne that experimented with various rules,  the first of which was played on July 31, An exhibition of forward play by Dr Croke's in Ardfinnan yesterday saw them cruise past Tipperary champions Moyle Rovers.
Imagine for a moment that as Joe Canning's late free deep into injury-time in the All-Ireland final was dropping into a crowded Limerick goalmouth, a Galway hurl got a deft touch to steer the ball to the net and, with no further time to play, the Tribesmen Conor McManus worries that there is "too much tinkering" with football heading into and he fears that some of the proposed rules could cost counties dearly.
Fewer GAA players sought sanctions this year to play in North American championships than in , a Club Fixtures Strategy mid-year report has identified.
Dublin legend Ciaran Whelan thinks that Stephen Cluxton's lack of media appearances could be behind his omission from the All Star team.
Monaghan's Rory Beggan has been named as the All-Star goalkeeper for , meaning Dublin hero Stephen Cluxton has missed out on the honour once again.
In the end, it took the selection committee representing various strands of the media just over two hours to select their All-Star football team for Casey O'Brien is right - forcing a team to play a county final and a provincial game inside 24 hours, as happened his club St Patrick's last weekend, is unfair.
Giving dual players equal respect and time was among the reasons that led to time constraints for Wicklow GAA that forced their senior football champions to play two games in 24 hours over the weekend after their county final went to a replay.
Carlow star Paul Broderick isn't enthused by the prospect of a second-tier football championship and feels that weaker counties would only be "ushered off to make way for those greater teams".
Cavan can lay claim to the best-attended county senior football final in , eclipsing heavyweight counties like Mayo and Tyrone.
Two games in consecutive days has been branded "totally unfair" by St Patrick's boss Casey O'Brien after the Wicklow SFC champions were forced to play twice within 24 hours last weekend and were subsequently knocked out of the Leinster club SFC.
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Shoulder to shoulder contact and slapping the ball out of an opponent's hand are permitted, but the following are all fouls:. The referee is responsible for starting and stopping play, recording the score, awarding frees and booking and sending off players.
The fourth official is responsible for overseeing substitutions, and also indicating the amount of stoppage time signalled to him by the referee and the players substituted using an electronic board.
The umpires are responsible for judging the scoring. They indicate to the referee whether a shot was: A disallowed score is indicated by crossing the green and white flags.
Other officials are not obliged to indicate any misdemeanours to the referee; they are only permitted to inform the referee of violent conduct they have witnessed that has occurred without the referee's knowledge.
Such decisions can only be made at the discretion of the referee. The Team of the Century was nominated in by Sunday Independent readers and selected by a panel of experts including journalists and former players.
The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions. Naturally many of the selections were hotly debated by fans around the country.
The Team of the Millennium was a team chosen in by a panel of GAA past presidents and journalists. The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions, since the foundation of the GAA in up to the Millennium year, Gaelic sports at all levels are amateur, in the sense that the athletes even those playing at elite level do not receive payment for their performance.
The main competitions at all levels of Gaelic football are the League and the Championship. Of these it is the Championship a knock-out tournament that tends to attain the most prestige.
The basic unit of each game is organised at the club level, which is usually arranged on a parochial basis.
Local clubs compete against other clubs in their county with the intention of winning the County Club Championship at senior, junior or intermediate levels for adults or under, minor or under-age levels for children.
A club may field more than one team, for example a club may field a team at senior level and a "seconds" team at junior or intermediate level. This format is laid out in the table below:.
Though the island of Ireland was partitioned between two states by the British parliament in , the organisation of Gaelic games like that of most cultural organisations and religions continues on an All-Ireland basis.
At the national level, Ireland's Gaelic games are organised in 32 GAA counties , most of which are identical in name and extent to the 32 administrative counties on which local government throughout the island was based until the late 20th century.
Clubs are also located throughout the world, in other parts of the United States , in Britain , in Canada , in Asia , in Australasia and in continental Europe.
The level at which county teams compete against each other is referred to as inter-county i. A county panel—a team of 15 players, plus a similar number of substitutes—is formed from the best players playing at club level in each county.
The most prestigious inter-county competition in Gaelic football is the All-Ireland Championship. Nearly all counties contest this tournament on an annual basis, with crowds of people thronging venues the length and breadth of Ireland—the most famous of these stadiums being Croke Park —to support their local county team, a team comprising players selected from the clubs in that county.
These modified knock-out games start as provincial championships contested by counties against other counties in their respective province, the four Irish provinces of Ulster , Munster , Leinster and Connacht.
The four victors in these then progress automatically to the All-Ireland series. In the past, the team winning each provincial championship would play one of the others, at a stage known as the All-Ireland semi-finals, with the winning team from each game playing each other in the famed All-Ireland Final to determine the outright winner.
Now the four victorious teams at provincial level enter the recently created All-Ireland quarter-finals instead, where they compete against the four remaining teams from the All-Ireland Qualifiers to progress to the All-Ireland semi-finals and then the All-Ireland Final.
This re-organisation means that one team may defeat another team in an early stage of the championship, yet be defeated and knocked out of the tournament by the same team at a later stage.
It also means a team may be defeated in an early stage of the championship, yet be crowned All-Ireland champions—as Tyrone were in and The secondary competition at inter-county level is the National League.
The National Football League is held every spring and groups counties in four divisions according to their relative strength. As at local county levels of Gaelic football, the League at national level is less prestigious than the Championship—however, in recent years attendances have grown, as has interest from the public and from players.
This is due in part to the adoption of a February—April timetable, in place of the former November start, as well as the provision of Division 2 final stages.
There are also All-Ireland championships for county teams at Junior , Under and Minor levels, and provincial and national club championships, contested by the teams that win their respective county championships.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Gaelic football, hurling and camogie positions. Players are cautioned by a yellow card, ordered off the pitch without a substitute by a red card, or ordered off the pitch with a substitution by a black card.
Scoring in Gaelic games. Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 18 September Retrieved 12 April Accessed 19 September The History of Gaelic Football.
A History of Gaelic Football. Sport Management and Related Topic Journal. Retrieved 3 January Archived from the original PDF on How to get into Gaelic football".
Retrieved 19 July